Hypertension Journal

1.GUEST EDITORIAL

Hypertension: Where we Stand and the Road Ahead

Satyendra Tewari
[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1-4] [No. of Hits: 686]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : [DOI : 10.15713/ins.johtn.0096]]

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is the most common risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. Hypertension is responsible for at least 45% of deaths due to heart disease and 51% of deaths due to stroke.[1] According to the WHO, the prevalence of raised blood pressure (BP) in Indians was 32.5% (33.2% in men and 31.7% in women). Every third patient is hypertensive.

How to cite this article: Tewari S. Hypertension: Where we stand and the road ahead. Hypertens 2018;4(1): 1-4.

Source of support: Nil,

Conflict of interest: None

Received: 02-11-2017;

Accepted: 12-12-2017

2.REVIEW ARTICLE

Hypertension in the Elderly: A Perspective

Prerna Kapoor, Aditya Kapoor
[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:5-12] [No. of Hits: 566]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : [DOI : 10.15713/ins.johtn.0097]]

ABSTRACT

The elderly is the most rapidly growing demographic subset of world population. Not only does the prevalence of hypertension (HT) increase with age but elderly patients also have existent comorbidities such as coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, chronic renal impairment, stroke, and cognitive decline. Although it may be difficult to provide an exact definition of elderly, ACCF/AHA guidelines have defined age-specific subgroups as “young old” (65-74 years), “older old” (75-84 years), and the “oldest old” (>85 years). Due to age-related reduction in vessel distensibility and enhanced vascular stiffness, systolic blood pressure rises, while diastolic blood pressure plateaus in late middle age, with a slight decline thereafter. Consequently, most elderly individuals have isolated systolic HT. Managing HT in elderly patients represents a therapeutic challenge for physicians, and till recently, the overall benefits of treating these patients remained unclear. The following review focuses on salient features of HT in the elderly population along with reappraisal of blood pressure management principles in them.

Key words: Hypertension, elderly, diagnosis and management

How to cite this article: Kapoor P, Kapoor A. Hypertension in the Elderly: A Perspective. Hypertens 2018;4(1): 5-12.

Source of support: Nil,

Conflict of interest: None

Received: 13-11-2017;

Accepted: 21-12-2017

3.REVIEW ARTICLE

Menopause and Cardiovascular Implication

Mayur Agrawal, Subhash Yadav
[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:13-17] [No. of Hits: 965]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : [DOI : 10.15713/ins.johtn.0098]]

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women.[1] Estrogen deficiency has a negative impact on cardiovascular function and metabolism.

Key words: Menopause, cardiovascular, amenorrhea

How to cite this article: Agrawal M, Yadav S. Menopause and cardiovascular implication. Hypertens 2018;4(1): 13-17.

Source of support: Nil,

Conflict of interest: None

Received: 02-11-2017;

Accepted: 20-12-2017**

4.REVIEW ARTICLE

Endocrine Hypertension: Diagnosis and Approach

Sushil Kumar Gupta
[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:18-25] [No. of Hits: 638]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : [DOI : 10.15713/ins.johtn.0099]]

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a major public health problem affecting more than one-third of adults above the age of 18 years.[1] Hypertension is one of biggest contributors to the global burden of disease and mortality.

Key words: Aldosterone-producing adenoma , hypokalemia, adrenal hypoplasia

How to cite this article: Gupta SK. Endocrine hypertension: Diagnosis and approach. Hypertens 2018;4(1): 18-25.

Source of support: Nil,

Conflict of interest: None

Received: 11-11-2017;

Accepted: 22-12-2017

5.REVIEW ARTICLE

Hypertension and Its Relation to Headache and Other Craniofacial Neuralgiform Pain

Vimal Kumar Paliwal, Ravi Uniyal, Sucharita Anand
[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:26-30] [No. of Hits: 1315]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : [DOI : 10.15713/ins.johtn.0100]]

ABSTRACT

Both headache and hypertension are widely prevalent in the general population. This has led to a belief that headaches have something to do with hypertension. However, the relationship of headache to hypertension is not a linear one. Mild and probably the moderate chronic hypertension do not seem to produce headache. Acute rise in blood pressure leading to hypertensive crisis can produce headache that is usually temporally related to the onset of hypertension. Acute blood pressure surge may also produce hypertensive encephalopathy and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, which are associated with severe headaches. Headache is also one of the cardinal features of pheochromocytoma and preeclampsia/eclampsia. Craniofacial neuralgiform pains, especially trigeminal neuralgia (TN), have also been shown to worsen with hypertension and relieved with antihypertensive medications in a subset of patients, thereby necessitating a need to understand the relationship of hypertension to TN and possibly with other neuralgiform pains.

Key words: Hypertensive crisis, hypertensive encephalopathy, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia

How to cite this article: Paliwal VK, Uniyal R, Anand S. Hypertension and its relation to headache and other craniofacial neuralgiform pain. Hypertens 2018;4(1): 26-30.

Source of support: Nil,

Conflict of interest: None

Received: 09-11-2017;

Accepted: 12-12-2017

6.REVIEW ARTICLE

Hypertension: A Risk Factor for Stroke

Sunil Pradhan, Anirudh Rao Deshmukh, Robin Bansal, Ananya Das
[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:31-35] [No. of Hits: 629]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : [DOI : 10.15713/ins.johtn.0101]]

ABSTRACT

Stroke is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and its incidence is increasing in view of changing demographics and increasing prevalence of its risk factors

Key words: Hypertensive agents, perindopril , Epidemiology

How to cite this article: Pradhan S, Deshmukh AR, Bansal R, Das A. Hypertension: A risk factor for stroke. Hypertens 2018;4(1): 31-35.

Source of support: Nil,

Conflict of interest: None

Received: 12-11-2017;

Accepted: 20-12-2017

7.REVIEW ARTICLE

Hypertensive Emergencies and Urgencies

Satyendra Tewari, Roopali Khanna, Nikunj Kotecha
[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:36-40] [No. of Hits: 1750]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : [DOI : 10.15713/ins.johtn.0102]]

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is leading cause of death related to cardiovascular cause. Hypertensive emergencies are life threating conditions and need urgent treatment. This review emphasizes the importance of timely diagnosis and implication of correct treatment in different clinical situations. Hypertensive urgencies can be treated on out patients basis and hypertensive emergencies require treatment with rapid onset and shorter duration intravenous anti hypertensive drugs. Optimal management of hypertensive emergencies will lead to lesser target organ damage and eventually less incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure.

Key words: Hypertensive emergencies, hypertensive urgencies, hypertension management

How to cite this article: Tewari S, Khanna R, Kotecha N. Hypertensive emergencies and urgencies. Hypertens 2018;4(1): 36-40.

Source of support: Nil,

Conflict of interest: None

Received: 10-11-2017;

Accepted: 17-12-2017

8.REVIEW ARTICLE

Management of Hypertension in Coronary Artery Disease

P. K. Goel, H. B. Chetan Kumar
[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:41-47] [No. of Hits: 626]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : [DOI : 10.15713/ins.johtn.0103]]

ABSTRACT

Hypertension (HTN) is a major modifiable independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) for all age, race, and sex groups. HTN initiates and accelerates the development of atherosclerosis. Sustained elevation of blood pressure (BP) can precipitate acute coronary events by destabilizing vascular lesions. The cardiovascular risks attributed to uncontrolled HTN can be reduced by optimal BP control. Varying therapeutic goals for BP control and availability of numerous antihypertensives make the management of HTN in patients with CAD controversial. This article examines the pathophysiological mechanisms that link HTN with CAD and discusses the available treatment options and therapeutic goals that are consistent with recently published American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high BP in adults published in 2017.

Key words: Coronary artery disease, guidelines, Hypertension, therapeutic goals

How to cite this article: Goel PK, Kumar HBC. Management of hypertension in coronary artery disease. Hypertens 2018;4(1): 41-47.

Source of support: Nil,

Conflict of interest: None

Received: 13-11-2017;

Accepted: 09-12-2017*

9.REVIEW ARTICLE

Hypertension as a Risk Factor for Chronic Kidney Disease

Sabarinath Shanmugham, Dharmendra Bhadauria
[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:48-54] [No. of Hits: 656]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : [DOI : 10.15713/ins.johtn.0104]]

ABSTRACT

Five decades back, high blood pressure (BP) was considered as an essential malady and not a treatable condition. Gradually, evidences started accumulating through major trials and now hypertension is the most common comorbidity and a powerful risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) and an independent risk factor for CKD progression. Although hypertension is the second most common cause of end-stage renal disease, next to diabetes mellitus, only few patients of primary hypertension develop renal dysfunction. The risk of hypertensive nephrosclerosis is high in African americans, independent of age, sex, and prevalence of hypertension. The clear-cut benefits of lowering BP in CKD patients are renoprotection and reducing the risk of CV complications. The less clear is the optimal BP targets and the best method for measuring and achieving the targets. Recent evidences suggest a BP goal of <130/80 mmHg irrespective of age and proteinuria, despite controversies. Home BP monitoring is gaining importance and it should be emphasized in all hypertensive patients.

Key words: Nephrosclerosis, hypertension, ESRD, BP goals, SPRINT

How to cite this article: Sabarinath S, Bhadauria D. Hypertension as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Hypertens 2018;4(1): 48-54.

Source of support: Nil,

Conflict of interest: None

Received: 16-11-2017;

Accepted: 27-12-2017

10.REVIEW ARTICLE

Management of Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and End-stage Renal Disease

Manas R. Patel, Amit Gupta
[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:55-63] [No. of Hits: 586]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : [DOI : 10.15713/ins.johtn.0105]]

ABSTRACT

Elevated blood pressures (BP) are common in patients with impaired kidney function. Hypertension (HTN) not only can be a consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) but it is also the most important risk factor for progressive decline of renal function in CKD leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hence, identification and management of HTN is essential for reducing morbidity and mortality resulting from both, i.e., cardiovascular events and renal failure. A combination of healthy lifestyle measures, dietary sodium restriction, and appropriate fluid management along with individualized antihypertensive regimen can achieve BP targets. Patients on renal replacement therapy also require optimized dialysis prescriptions in addition to the above measures. Finally, home measurement of BP and adherence to treatment is central for having a successful outcome. In this review, we discuss the benefits of BP control, measurement techniques, controversies regarding target pressures, rationale of current guidelines, and specific issues in management in patients with CKD and ESRD.

Key words: Hyperfilteration, renin–angiotensin, endothelial dysfunction

How to cite this article: Patel MR, Gupta A. Management of hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease and endstage renal disease. Hypertens 2018;4(1): 55-63.

Source of support: Nil,

Conflict of interest: None

Received: 08-11-2017;

Accepted: 17-12-2017